Whenever a woman doubts whether she is pregnant, the hospital will suggest to check HCG. However, many people don't know what hcg is. Today we will explain to you exactly what HCGis in this article!
HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the trophoblast cells of the placenta.
After implantation, in order to settle firmly in the uterus, the fertilized ovum will stretch out a lot of small tentacles to grasp the inner wall of the uterus. These small tentacles are human villi, and HCG is a hormone secreted by human villi, the full name is human chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG).
HCG, the most commonly used "pregnancy test" hormone, is often used to determine whether or not you are pregnant. For example, early pregnancy test strips and pregnancy test sticks use this principle.
1) With the functions of FSH and LH, it can maintain the life of the menstrual corpus luteum and increase the menstrual corpus luteum to become gestational corpus luteum;
2) Promoting the conversion of androgen aromatization into estrogen, while stimulating the formation of progesterone;
3) Inhibiting the stimulating effect of plant lectins on lymphocytes. HCG can be adsorbed on the surface of trophoblast cells to prevent embryonic trophoblast cells from being attacked by maternal lymphocytes;
4) It has LH-like function. Before the fetal pituitary gland secretes LH, it stimulates the fetal testes to secrete testosterone to promote male sexual differentiation; it can also promote gonadal development, stimulate the vitality of testicular stromal cells for men, and increase the secretion of male hormones (testosterone). It is of great significance for the treatment of male patients with combined pituitary gland defects. It can not only promote gonadal development and the secretion of male hormones, but also promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
5) It can bind to the TSH receptor of maternal thyroid cells to stimulate thyroid activity.
6. At the same time, the numerical change of HCG also plays an important indicator role:
· Distinguish between normal and abnormal pregnancy: According to changes in normal HCG concentration, if the first HCG is within the normal range, 79% of people can have a full-term pregnancy. If the first HCG is lower than normal, 92% of the pregnancy will fail. In particular, ectopic pregnancy is mostly due to insufficient blood supply at the implantation site, leading to poor growth of trophoblast cells, less HCG secretion, and lower than normal levels.
· Diagnosis and treatment of miscarriage: incomplete miscarriage, there is still placental tissue remaining in the uterus, HCG rapid test strip is characterized as positive, HCG can be negative in complete miscarriage or stillbirth, if HCG is below 2500IU/L and gradually decreases, miscarriage or Stillbirth is possible; when it drops to 600IU/L, abortion is inevitable. If the HCG in the blood continues to drop, it means the abortion is invalid, otherwise, it means the abortion is successful.
· Serum HCG should return to normal 4 days after delivery or 13 days after induced abortion. If this situation is not met, the possibility of abnormality should be considered.
· Malignant hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma, and male testicular teratoma: In this case, the HCG is abnormally elevated. After surgical treatment, if the treatment is effective, the HCG gradually decreases to the normal level; if the HCG does not decrease but rises or maintains a high value, it indicates that the treatment is invalid or recurrence.
· Others: HCG tends to be high during pregnancy-induced hypertension; HCG is generally higher in multiple pregnancy than in single pregnancy.
· In addition, HCG also plays an irreplaceable role in the screening of Down syndrome and the diagnosis and treatment of male testicular cancer and other diseases.
1) HCG is a protein hormone with gonadotrophic development produced by placental chorionic trophoblast cells. It is composed of two peptide chains, α and β. General hospitals do β-HCG testing for cytotrophication and pregnancy diagnosis.
2) Generally, the HCG test will be divided into urine test and blood test. Some mothers don't know which one to use, and the effect will be better. If mother is really unsure, you can consider testing twice, or you can consider Both are done to ensure authenticity.
3) If it is for β-HCG test, the doctor usually recommends that the blood HCG test is the standard, and the urine test is easily affected by other factors. For example, some hormones, such as LH hormone, can react with the test paper and will appear. False positives, such as thyroid hormones will have an impact. And it is difficult to identify which false positive is, so the urine test has more interference than the blood β-HCG.
4) Blood HCG is negative, urine HCG shows positive, the first thing to consider is the false positive problem. First, it may be related to the degree of urine concentration. The longer the urine is stored, the more HCG will accumulate, which will be detected by the kit. False positive. Second, it may be due to the abnormal increase in the secretion of β-HCG lytic enzymes secreted by trophoblast macrophages during very pregnancy, so that too many degradation products are secreted into the urine, leading to false positives.
5) Generally, urine HCG cannot objectively reflect the condition of the disease. At the same time, the activity of trophoblasts should be monitored to provide accurate basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment. The blood HCG measurement result should be the most accurate. You can consider testing twice, if the blood HCG is negative, then the urine is a false positive.